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|Lewis Carroll – writer, logician||Michael Fitzgerald|
|Henry Cavendish – 18th century British scientist. He was unusually reclusive, literal minded, had trouble relating to people, had trouble adapting to people, difficulties looking straight at people, drawn to patterns, etc.||Oliver Sacks, and Ione James; Fred Volkmar of Yale Study Child Center is skeptical.|
|Charles Darwin – naturalist, associated with the theory of evolution by natural selection||Michael Fitzgerald|
|Paul Dirac – British mathematician and physicist. He was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University, 1933–1963 and a Fellow of St John's College. Awarded the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the mathematical foundations of Quantum Mechanics.||Ione James and Graham Farmelo|
|Albert Einstein – physicist||See analysis below|
|Isaac Newton||See analysis below|
|Srinivasa Ramanujan – mathematician||Ioan James and Michael Fitzgerald|
|Charles Richter – seismologist, creator of the eponymous scale of earthquake magnitude||Susan Hough in her biography of Richter|
|Nikola Tesla - Serbian inventor, and electrical and mechanical engineer. Was able to mentally picture very detailed mechanisms; spoke 8 languages; was never married; was very sensitive to touch and had an acute sense of hearing and sight; was obsessed with the number three and also had several eating compulsions||NPR, Harvey Blume|
|Alan Turing – pioneer of computer sciences. He seemed to be a math savant and his lifestyle has many autism traits about it.||Tony Attwood and Ioan James|
|Michael Ventris – English architect who deciphered Linear B||Simon Baron-Cohen|
People with Asperger syndrome may refer to themselves in casual conversation as aspies, coined by Liane Holliday Willey in 1999. The word neurotypical (abbreviated NT) describes a person whose neurological development and state are typical, and is often used to refer to non-autistic people. The Internet has allowed individuals with AS to communicate and celebrate with each other in a way that was not previously possible because of their rarity and geographic dispersal. A subculture of aspies has formed. Internet sites like Wrong Planet have made it easier for individuals to connect.
Autistic people have advocated a shift in perception of autism spectrum disorders as complex syndromes rather than diseases that must be cured. Proponents of this view reject the notion that there is an "ideal" brain configuration and that any deviation from the norm is pathological; they promote tolerance for what they call neurodiversity. These views are the basis for the autistic rights and autistic pride movements.There is a contrast between the attitude of adults with self-identified AS, who typically do not want to be cured and are proud of their identity, and parents of children with AS, who typically seek assistance and a cure for their children.
Some researchers have argued that AS can be viewed as a different cognitive style, not a disorder or a disability, and that it should be removed from the standard Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, much as homosexuality was removed. In a 2002 paper, Simon Baron-Cohen wrote of those with AS, "In the social world there is no great benefit to a precise eye for detail, but in the worlds of math, computing, cataloguing, music, linguistics, engineering, and science, such an eye for detail can lead to success rather than failure." Baron-Cohen cited two reasons why it might still be useful to consider AS to be a disability: to ensure provision for legally required special support, and to recognize emotional difficulties from reduced empathy. It has been argued that the genes for Asperger's combination of abilities have operated throughout recent human evolution and have made remarkable contributions to human history.