Por que os teólogos não são criacionistas?
O debate com um leitor levantou um ponto interessante: por que a grande maioria dos teólogos não é criacionista? E por que a maioria dos criacionistas famosos não são teólogos, mas engenheiros? (como diria Sheldon, "hummm.... engenheiros.... está explicado...).
Embora a lista de criacionistas famosos dada na Wikipedia não cite os criacionistas judeus, muçulmanos, budistas ou new agers (acho que isto deveria ser revisto na Wiki), me parece uma amostra relevante em relação ao Criacinismo Bíblico. Assim, notamos o fato interessante de que apenas John Withcomb e Thomas E. Woodward estudaram teologia (em seminários fundamentalistas).
Por que a maioria dos criacionistas bíblicos famosos não são teólogos? E por que a maioria dos teólogos famosos não é criacionista? Acho que a resposta é muito simples: os criacionistas bíblicos são profundamente ignorantes em teologia, pois desde Agostinho ou mesmo Paulo de Tarso os teólogos reconhecem que a linguagem bíblica é metafórica, que não se deve fazer uma leitura literal da Bíblia e que o literalismo bíblico é teologicamente insustentável.
Ao contrário dos criacionistas bíblicos, os teólogos estudam profundamente a Bíblia, sua origem, sua história, sua filologia, sua critica textual, a linguagem e a cultura da época, etc. Já os criacionistas bíblicos não possuem a mínima formação nessas áreas, ou pelo menos se comportam como se não tivessem.
Para mais informações, aqui vai a página da Wikipedia sobre o tema:
List of participants in the creation–evolution controversy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from List of participants in the creation-evolution controversy)
This is a list of people and organisations involved in the creation-evolution controversy.
Organizations and websites
- The United States National Academy of Sciences has made a number of statements opposing creationism. They state, "Creationism, intelligent design, and other claims of supernatural intervention in the origin of life or of species are not science because they are not testable by the methods of science."
- The American Association for the Advancement of Science (the world's largest general scientific society) contrasts the "scientific robustness of the contemporary theory of biological evolution" with the proposed teaching of intelligent design that will "confuse students about the nature of science."
- The Royal Society is opposed to creationism being taught as science. The society is committed to the teaching of evolution as the best explanation for the history of life on earth.
- The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) supports the teaching of evolutionary biology in schools, and opposes the teaching of creationism. They hold that science classes should teach evolution; that teachers should be "nonjudgmental" of students' religious views; and that "creation science" and "intelligent design" should not be taught.
- The National Center for Science Education was founded in 1981 to oppose creationism and is led by Eugenie Scott. It has 4,000 members and operates a website. It also runsProject Steve, a list of 772+ certified Doctorate holding pro-evolution signatories named Steve (or Stephen or some variant thereof), as a parody of creationist attempts to collect signature lists of experts who doubt evolution.
- The American Association of Physics Teachers states that "we do not endorse teaching the 'evidence against evolution,' because currently no such scientific evidence exists. Nor can we condone teaching "scientific creationism," "intelligent design," or other non-scientific viewpoints as valid scientific theories."
- The American Astronomical Society supports teaching evolution, noting that many astronomical observations show changes in the universe over a long period of time consistent with evolution. They state that "'Intelligent Design' fails to meet the basic definition of a scientific idea" and "does not belong in the science curriculum."
- The American Geophysical Union states that "Earth History and the Evolution of Life Must Be Taught: Creationism Is Not Science," thus the AGU "opposes all efforts to require or promote teaching creationism or any other religious tenets as science." In addition, the American Geological Institute, the Association for Women Geoscientists, the Geological Society of America, the Paleontological Society, the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology and the Society for Organic Petrology all have position statements supporting the teaching of evolution and opposing the teaching of non-scientific ideas.
- The Board of Directors of the American Chemical Society supports "evolution as the only scientifically accepted explanation for the origin and diversity of species." 
- The American Physical Society's governing Council has long expressed its opposition to the inclusion of religious concepts such as intelligent design and related forms of creationism in science classes. APS is the world's largest professional body of physicists, representing over 43,000 physicists in academia and industry in the US and internationally.
- Kansas Citizens for Science is a group that is trying to fight the revision of science standards in Kansas.
- CSICOP and The Skeptics Society are anti-pseudoscience organizations with creationism among their targets.
- The Talk.Origins Archive is a large website of articles critiquing creationary ideas, plus a discussion forum; there is an extensive set of links to sites of interest on both sides of the debate - including True. Origins.
- Talk Reason is a take-off of the talk.origins archive that deals exclusively with debunking intelligent design.
- Richard Dawkins is a noted atheist and outspoken critic of religion and creationism.
- Kenneth R. Miller, a biology professor from Brown University and author and commentator opposed to the intelligent design movement. Miller as an expert witness for the plaintiff inKitzmiller v. Dover Area School District.
- Robert T. Pennock is a philosopher now working on the Avida digital organism project at Michigan State University where he is an associate professor. The author of many books and articles critical of intelligent design. He testified as an expert witness for the plaintiff in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District.
- Barbara Forrest is a professor in philosophy in the Department of History and Political Science at Southeastern Louisiana University. Her testimony as an expert witness for the plaintiff in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District was central to the judge's ruling for the plaintiff. She and scientist Paul R. Gross co-authored the book Creationism's Trojan Horse: The Wedge of Intelligent Design (Oxford University Press 2004).
- Brian Alters is an Associate Professor of Education and Sir William Dawson Scholar at McGill University, where he also holds the Tomlinson Chair in Science Education and is both founder and Director of the Evolution Education Research Centre. He has taught science education at both Harvard and McGill Universities, and is regarded as a specialist in evolution education. Alters testified as an expert witness for the plaintiff in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District.
- Kevin Padian is a Professor of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley, Curator of Paleontology, University of California Museum of Paleontology and President of the National Center for Science Education. Padian's area of interest is in vertebrate evolution. He served as an expert witness for the plaintiffs in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District where his testimony was repeatedly cited in the court's decision.
- Michael Ruse is a philosopher of science, working on the philosophy of biology, and is well known for his work on the argument between creationism and evolutionary biology. Ruse was a witness for the plaintiff in McLean v. Arkansas.
- The late Carl Sagan and Stephen Jay Gould figure among the well-known scientists who have been outspoken against creationism.
- Wesley R. Elsberry hosts The Panda's Thumb blog which sponsors articles and posts by some of the most active debaters of creationists and Intelligent Design advocates.
- PZ Myers, a biologist at the University of Minnesota Morris, and an outspoken critic of creationism on his blog Pharyngula.
Organizations and websites
- The Creation Research Society, an organization that limits voting members to those with a postgraduate degree, supports the study of origins with regard to creation science.
- The Institute for Creation Research is based in San Diego and was founded in 1970 by Henry Morris. It is now led by his son, John Morris. ICR publishes a number of books and newsletters, as well as producing radio spots and operating a website and a small museum.
- Answers in Genesis (AiG) is a Christian apologetics organization devoted to the beliefs of Young Earth creationism, specifically a plain reading of the first chapters of the Book of Genesis. Ken Ham is a notable creationist from AiG.
- The Center for Scientific Creation, founded by creationist Dr. Walter Brown, is dedicated to studying origins from two different perspectives. It studies the earth as it exists today and formulates theories about what past events could have occurred to generate what we see today. It also looks at the Genesis account of origins and history, and formulates theories and predictions (of which there are 38) that science has not yet discovered, but based on Dr. Brown's theories, will be discovered when technology and research is applied in those areas. Creationists claim that some of his predictions of scientific discovery have already been found to be true, including his prediction about comet composition, discovered by the Deep Impact Mission on 4 July 2005.
- The Discovery Institute is a Seattle-based think tank which has been the primary driver behind intelligent design. Its members include Phillip E. Johnson - father of the intelligent design movement, Stephen C. Meyer, Michael Behe and William Dembski. Its goal as stated in its Wedge strategy document is to "defeat [scientific] materialism" represented byevolution, "reverse the stifling materialist world view and replace it with a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions" ... "We are building on this momentum, broadening the wedge with a positive scientific alternative to materialistic scientific theories, which has come to be called the theory of intelligent design (ID). Design theory promises to reverse the stifling dominance of the materialist worldview, and to replace it with a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions." The institute's ultimate goal is to "renew" American culture by shaping public policy to reflect conservative Christian, namely evangelical Protestant, values..
- The American Scientific Affiliation is an organization of professional scientists who also have a commitment to the Christian faith and has been in existence since 1948. There has been long-standing dialog in this organization between members who believe that there is no conflict between evolutionary science and religious ideas and other members who believe that there is a conflict.
- Reasons to Believe is a progressive creationist organisation founded in 1986 by Hugh Ross. It publishes a number of books and operates a website. Ross opposes biological evolution but accepts mainstream theories of geological and astronomical history.
- Answers In Creation is an old-earth creationist website which supports both progressive creationists and theistic evolutionists. This is accomplished by examining young-earth creationist arguments and showing the flaws they contain.
- The True.Origin Archive is a website set up to respond to claims made on the Talk.Origins Archive (see above); it includes a page of purchasable material of interest to creationists.
- The Center for Origins Research, at Bryan College.
- Probe Ministries is an evangelical Christian organization founded in 1973 by James F. Williams Jr. and Jon Buell, based in Richardson, Texas. It is a Christian worldview and apologetics ministry headed by Ray Bohlin, a fellow of the Discovery Institute.
- Christian Answers provides online access to "over 45-thousand files" of Christian apologetics (including creationist) materials in 42 languages. Team members behind Christian Answers include: AIIA Institute; Answers in Genesis; Associates for Biblical Research; Creation Research Society; Eden Communications/Films for Christ; Ray Comfort/Living Waters Summit Ministries. Christian Answers maintains a list of scientists that subscribe to creationism.
- The Creation Science Association of Mid America (CSAMA) is Young Earth creationist organizaton based in St Louis, Missouri. In 1999 the Kansas State Board of Educationrelied heavily on CSAMA material in constructing science standards that minimized the tuition of evolution.
- Henry Morris and John Whitcomb in the early 1960s co-authored The Genesis Flood, the book credited with reviving interest in creation as an alternative to evolution. Dr. Morris is considered the "father" of modern creationism.
- Robert V. Gentry concluded that a phenomenon he claimed to observe, "polonium haloes", was an indication of a young earth. Additionally, Gentry has invented his own creationist cosmology.
- Duane Gish is a creationist who has become well-known for debating evolutionists across America and in other countries. He is also Senior Vice President of ICR. His Creation Scientists Answer Their Critics was a creationist response to Strahler's book (see below) and many other anti-creationist books.
- Kent Hovind, aka Dr. Dino, is a creationist enthusiast who started a creationist theme park and tours churches arguing against evolution. He has been the proponent of a number of ideas, including advocating that dinosaurs lived at the same time as human beings. Hovind has been at the center of a number of controversies including a questionable doctoral degree granted by a university without official accredation and is currently serving a federal prison term for various crimes related to failure to pay federal income and employment taxes.
- Phillip E. Johnson is considered many to be the father of the intelligent design movement but has advocated for big tent inclusion of creationists in his proposed attack onphilosophical naturalism.
- Walt Brown is a famous proponent of creation science including flood geology and creationist cosmologies. He runs his own ministry called the Center for Scientific Creation and is famous for claiming that "evolutionists" refuse to debate him.
- Raymond Bohlin, Ph.D., is the president of Probe Ministries and a fellow of the Discovery Institute. Bohlin received his Ph.D. in molecular and cell biology from the University of Texas at Dallas and has published in the Journal of Thermal Biology, Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation and the Journal of Mammalogy. He also authored the book The Natural Limits to Biological Change in 1984.
- Ken Ham is the Australian-born president of Answers in Genesis USA and Joint CEO of Answers in Genesis International. A vocal advocate for a literal interpretation of the Book of Genesis, his cross-country speaking tours and many books make him one of the better known young-Earth creationists.
- Jonathan Wells, author of Icons of Evolution and other creationist books and popular articles.
- Thomas E. Woodward is professor of missions, evangelism and science at Trinity College of Florida/Dallas Theological Seminary (Tampa Bay Extension) and a prominent Christianapologist. Woodward has published widely defending intelligent design and attacking Darwin's theory of evolution.