terça-feira, junho 16, 2009

Natal é coisa do demônio?

Mais algumas curiosidades históricas sobre o Natal. Fazer este post em pleno junho é uma idiosincrasia minha. Será que os evangélicos e os neo-ateístas são a dupla face do puritanismo anglo-saxão?
During the Reformation, some Puritans condemned Christmas celebration as "trappings of popery" and the "rags of the Beast."[28] The Roman Catholic Church responded by promoting the festival in a more religiously oriented form. Following the Parliamentarian victory over King Charles I during the English Civil War, England's Puritan rulers banned Christmas, in 1647.[28] Pro-Christmas rioting broke out in several cities, and for weeks Canterbury was controlled by the rioters, who decorated doorways with holly and shouted royalist slogans.[28] The Restoration of Charles II in 1660 ended the ban, but many clergymen still disapproved of Christmas celebration. In Presbyterian Scotland, James VI commanded the celebration of Christmas in 1618, however attendance at church was scant.[29]

In Colonial America, the Puritans of New England disapproved of Christmas. Celebration was outlawed in Boston from 1659 to 1681. At the same time, Christian residents of Virginia and New York observed the holiday freely. Pennsylvania German Settlers, pre-eminently the Moravian settlers of Bethlehem, Nazareth and Lititz in Pennsylvania and the Wachovia Settlements in North Carolina, were enthusiastic celebrators of Christmas. The Moravians in Bethlehem had the first Christmas trees in America as well as the first Nativity Scenes.
Christmas fell out of favor in the United States after the American Revolution, when it was considered an English custom.[30] George Washington attacked Hessian mercenaries on Christmas during the Battle of Trenton in 1777. (Christmas being much more popular in Germany than in America at this time.) By the 1820s, sectarian tension had eased and British writers, including William Winstanly, began to worry that Christmas was dying out. These writers imagined Tudor Christmas as a time of heartfelt celebration, and efforts were made to revive the holiday.
Charles Dickens's book A Christmas Carol, published in 1843, played a major role in reinventing Christmas as a holiday emphasizing family, goodwill, and compassion as opposed to communal celebration and hedonistic excess.[31] In America, interest in Christmas was revived in the 1820s by several short stories by Washington Irving which appear in his The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon and "Old Christmas", and by Clement Clarke Moore's 1822 poem A Visit From St. Nicholas (popularly known by its first line: Twas the Night Before Christmas).[32] Irving's stories depicted harmonious warm-hearted holiday traditions he claimed to have observed in England. Although some argue that Irving invented the traditions he describes, they were widely imitated by his American readers. The poem A Visit from Saint Nicholas popularized the tradition of exchanging gifts and seasonal Christmas shopping began to assume economic importance.[33]
In reaction, this also started the cultural conflict of the holiday's spiritualism and its commercialism that some see as corrupting the holiday. In her 1850 book "The First Christmas in New England", Harriet Beecher Stowe includes a character who complains that the true meaning of Christmas was lost in a shopping spree.[34] Christmas was declared a United States Federal holiday in 1870, signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant.

2 comentários:

Jeferson Arenzon disse...

Oi Osame,

Esse post, que concordo está no nível de conversa de botequim (mas um pouco também a idéia é essa), surgiu da recorrência com que o bispo de Porto Alegre resolve meter seus conceitos e preconceitos religiosos na vida civil. Abrir ou não abrir lojas em um feriado precisa ser discutido entre patrões, empregados e sindicato, mas a regra não pode ser motivada por religião.

Osame Kinouchi disse...

Jeferson, eu concordo com você, mas precisamos reconhecer que a ingerencia da religião na sociedade brasileira é uma ordem de grandeza inferior a existente nos EUA ou em Israel.

Israel é uma potencia científica mas eu duvido que os cientistas israelenses ateus ficam propondo que o shabat seja eliminado ou que o Yon Kippur deixe de ser feriado. Me parece que a agenda politica dos cientistas judeus é bem mais complexa.

Ou seja, me parece que a religião judaica foi um fator integrador e estimulador da valorização da educação etc nessa sociedade. Acho que um ateismo que proclamasse, junto com Nietszche, que o Judaismo é a raiz de todos os males (afinal, ele foi a raiz do Cristianismo e do Islamismo!) estaria defendendo uma posição bastante simplista...